By Patrick Cozzi
Supported with code examples and the authors’ real-world event, this booklet deals the 1st advisor to engine layout and rendering algorithms for digital globe purposes like Google Earth and NASA global Wind. The content material can be valuable for basic portraits and video games, specifically planet and massive-world engines. With pragmatic recommendation all through, it really is crucial analyzing for practitioners, researchers, and hobbyists in those parts, and will be used as a textual content for a unique subject matters direction in special effects.
Topics coated include:
- Rendering globes, planet-sized terrain, and vector data
- Multithread source management
- Out-of-core algorithms
- Shader-based renderer design
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Extra resources for 3D Engine Design for Virtual Globes
0) ; double s = x . X + x . Y + x . Z ; Vector3D n = ( y − x ) . N o r m a l i z e ( ) ; double p = n . Dot ( y ) ; Vector3D z = x . 0 ( 1 . 0 / Sqrt ( 2 . 0 / S q r t ( 2 . 0 ) , 0 . 0 / Sqrt ( 2 . 2. Fundamental Vector3D operations. double precision as explained in Chapter 5. 1 We use meters for units in Cartesian coordinates and for height in geodetic coordinates, which is common in virtual globes. Let’s turn our attention to ellipsoids, which will allow us to more precisely define geographic coordinates, and ultimately discuss one of the most common operations in virtual globes: conversion between geographic and WGS84 coordinates.
The set of points r units away from c define the sphere’s surface. For convenience, the sphere is commonly centered at the origin, making its implicit equation: x2s + ys2 + zs2 = r2 . 1) is on the sphere’s surface. We use the subscript s to denote that the point is on the surface, as opposed to an arbitrary point (x, y, z), which may or may not be on the surface. In some cases, it is reasonable to model a globe as a sphere, but as we shall see in the next section, an ellipsoid provides more precision and flexibility.
3. Partial Ellipsoid implementation. The WGS84 ellipsoid is widely used; we use it in STK and Insight3D, as do many virtual globes. Even some games use it, such as Microsoft’s Flight Simulator . The most flexible approach for handling globe shapes in code is to use a generic ellipsoid class constructed with user-defined radii. This allows code that supports the WGS84 ellipsoid and also supports other ellipsoids, such as those for the Moon, Mars, etc. 3). 2 Ellipsoid Surface Normals Computing the outward-pointing surface normal for a point on the surface of an ellipsoid has many uses, including shading calculations and precisely defining height in geographic coordinates.
3D Engine Design for Virtual Globes by Patrick Cozzi